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Infectious bronchitis virus

Digitally-colorized transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of a number of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) virions. This enveloped pathogenic virus belongs to the Coronaviridae family and causes infectious bronchitis (IB) in poulty. This virus is very contagious through trasmission via air and contaminated material (food, water, supplies). It has a short incubation period. Entire flocks can be infected within days. The disease affects a number of organ systems including respiratory, gut, reproductive and urogenital organs. Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC / Dr. Fred Murphy; Sylvia Whitfield).

Cladosporium spp.

Common environmental / allergenic mold (Cladosporium spp.); fungal hyphae producing spores. Synonym - Hormodendrum. Magnification 340, scanning electron microscopy. This specimen was found on the inner surface of a buildings air supply duct. This genus is the most common outdoor airborne mold but may occur in homes. It is an allergenic mold producing over 10 different types of antigens. The spores are easily made airborne and are a common cause of respiratory problems. It is frequently found at elevated levels in water-damaged environments. The genus Cladosporium includes over 30 species. The most common ones include Cladosporium elatum, Cladosporium herbarum, Cladosporium sphaerospermum (common indoors), and Cladosporium cladosporioides. Cladosporium can cause mycosis and extrinsic asthma (immediate-typehypersensitivity: type I). Acute symptoms include edema and bronchiospasms, chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema. Certain species cause systemic fungal infections and has been documented in cases of blastomycosis, candidiasis, chromoblastomycosis, histoplasmosis, entomophthoromycosis, onychomycosis, sinusitis, pulmonary infections, phaeohyphomycosis and keratomycosis. Cladosporium spp. can also be associated with the spoilage of refrigerated meats. Courtesy of Dennis Kunkel.

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