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Links for Medical Microbiology:

  • Aflatoxin contamination is a common phenomenon produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, acting on food crops consumed in both developing countries and, occasionally, in the United States. Aflatoxin grows on corn and grain crops after harvest during the drying process. Outbreaks of aflatoxicosis (poisoning by aflatoxin) were first noted in the 1960s in England after more than 100,000 turkeys on poultry farms died after consuming contaminated feed. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Aflatoxin_Contamination_(Agricultural_%26_Resource_Economics)
  • What is in the air in your home, where you work, or in public buildings? There may be bioaerosols — airborne biological contaminants. By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/kowalski.html
  • Much of microbiological research on infectious agents is increasingly specialized and reductionist, viewing the host as a virtually static environment and thus sharply narrowing the context of the disease under study. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.176.1
  • The repeated emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is a problem that has long plagued public health. Bacteria have always possessed the ability to protect themselves from naturally occurring antibiotics by acquiring resistance through the exchange of genetic material with other bacteria. By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotechnology/kardar.html
  • Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of microbes, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi, to grow in the presence of a chemical (drug) that would normally kill it or limit its growth. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Antimicrobial_resistance_to_drugs
  • Avian influenza is an infection caused by avian (bird) influenza (flu) viruses. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Bird_flu
  • In 1977, health officials in Somalia documented the last case of naturally acquired smallpox, completing an intensive, wide-ranging campaign to eradicate the global incidence of smallpox infections. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.409.1
  • Pathogenic microbes can be put into two general categories: those acquired from the environment and those acquired from other humans and animals. Microbes that are acquired from the environment typically can survive in environmental niches and also in their hosts. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.359.1
  • Antibiotic resistance, reported for sulfonamides in the mid-1930s and for penicillins in the 1940s, remains a stubborn quandary. What was once confined mainly to hospitals increasingly involves multidrug resistance that encompasses communities and encircles the globe. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.231.1
  • Since the epidemic of ‘mad cow disease’ in the 1980s and 90s, and the emergence of its human equivalent, variant Creutzfeld-Jacob disease, there has been a great deal of research into prions, the causative agents. By Science in School, promoting inspiring science teaching by encouraging communication between teachers, scientists, and everyone else involved in European science education.

    http://www.scienceinschool.org/2010/issue15/prions
  • Although there has been a perceived increase in dengue cases in the Americas since 1980, the epidemiology of this disease has not been well documented. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Dengue_in_the_Americas
  • Discovering how infectious diseases spread may seem purely a matter for medical science – but taking a close look at the numbers can also tell us a great deal. By Science in School, promoting inspiring science teaching by encouraging communication between teachers, scientists, and everyone else involved in European science education.

    http://www.scienceinschool.org/content/ebola-numbers-using-mathematics-tackle-epidemics
  • Infectious diseases, such as SARS and AIDS, are a more serious global problem than in the past. By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/morse.html
  • Our modern lifestyle, in which we can travel around the globe in a matter of days, has made it easier for infectious diseases to spread. By Science in School, promoting inspiring science teaching by encouraging communication between teachers, scientists, and everyone else involved in European science education.

    http://www.scienceinschool.org/2013/issue27/zoonosis
  • When thinking about diffraction studies, X-rays most often come to mind, but neutrons can also provide important structural information – and could help in the fight against HIV. By Science in School, promoting inspiring science teaching by encouraging communication between teachers, scientists, and everyone else involved in European science education.

    http://www.scienceinschool.org/content/fighting-hiv-neutrons
  • The closest that many of us will ever come to malaria is a handful of pills prescribed before a trip to a tropical country, or the stories of ancient expeditions wiped out by mysterious fevers. By Science in School, promoting inspiring science teaching by encouraging communication between teachers, scientists, and everyone else involved in European science education.

    http://www.scienceinschool.org/2006/issue1/malaria
  • A simple fungus used to brew beer is now used around the world to advance cancer research. By Science in School, promoting inspiring science teaching by encouraging communication between teachers, scientists, and everyone else involved in European science education.

    http://www.scienceinschool.org/2014/issue28/fungus_cancer
  • Over the past decade, the complexity of climate change has been the subject of extensive discussion. However, microbial factors associated with climate change, notably infectious diseases, are rarely, if ever, included in climate models. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Global_climate_and_health:_predicting_infectious_disease_outbreaks
  • Living with each of us—on our skin, in our mucosa, and in our gastrointestinal (GI) tract—are microorganisms whose numbers dwarf the number of our own cells and genes. Although some of these microbes are pathogens, most are harmless or even beneficial. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Gut_reaction:_environmental_effects_on_the_human_microbiota
  • For most of the time, the population of bacteria in the large intestine lives in balance within its confines. By The Science Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of science in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1837-healthy-gut-bacteria
  • The history of pathogens can be construed as examining the known information regarding the occurrence of pathogens in Geologic time, and also the period of mankind's scientific discovery of these disease agents. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/History_of_pathogens
  • Even though free-living, mycoplasmas depend on their hosts for key nutrients, including purines, pyrimidines, several amino acids, and sterols, which are incorporated into the membranes of these wall-less bacteria. These requirements reflect their relative genomic simplicity. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.2.537.1
  • The fungal epidemic in amphibians demonstrates that global warming can be a major factor in the spread of pathogens. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Human_Health:_Rise_in_Temperatures_Could_Lead_to_Rise_in_Disease
  • The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) aims to characterize the microbial communities found at several different sites on the human body, including nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract, and to analyze the role of these microbes in human health and disease. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Human_Microbiome_Project
  • Imagine it’s wintertime. This is a time you or someone you know gets a cold. You cough and sneeze and feel terrible. Maybe you go to bed for a couple of days or keep going. By The Science Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of science in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/179-infection
  • Though the influenza virus has been killing humans for thousands of years, the virus itself was not discovered until the 1930s. Without the knowledge about the origin and transmission of this disease, the 1918 Spanish flu had a terrible impact, infecting about 30%, and killing about 3%, of the world’s population. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Influenza_Virus_(About_the_EoE)
  • This story begins in the early 1880s. The germ theory of disease was fairly well established, although some experts continued to challenge it. For example, Theodor Billroth (1829–1894) of Vienna, often called the founding father of abdominal surgery, did not immediately accept the germ theory, but later embraced the concept and became very successful in many pioneering surgeries. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.223.1
  • In a 1945 interview with The New York Times, Alexander Fleming, who won a Nobel Prize that year for his discovery of pencillin, warned that misuse of the drug could result in selection for resistant bacteria. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Landscape_of_Antibiotic_Resistance
  • Large-scale trickle filters are wastewater treatment facilities for biochemically oxidizing biodegradable substances present in municipal or industrial wastewater. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Large-scale_trickle_filters
  • Areas in California where Western fence lizards were removed had a subsequent drop in numbers of the ticks that transmit Lyme disease, scientists have discovered. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Lyme_Disease-Carrying_Ticks_and_Western_Lizards
  • Symbiotic relationships between microbes and their animal and plant hosts shape our world. Interest in these host-microbial interactions is intensifying, and researchers from many disciplines within biology are striving to understand their functional and evolutionary significance. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.323.1
  • Microorganisms — bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae, viruses and protists — are often easy to overlook. For the most part (except fungal fruiting bodies seen as mushrooms) we can’t see microbes. The effects of microbes we feel are usually associated with an illness. By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/meade_callahan.html
  • Microbial endocrinology is the discipline where microbiology, endocrinology, and neurophysiology intersect. Its objective is to examine and better understand how microorganisms interact with their hosts under circumstances of both health and disease. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.169.1
  • Microbes release innumerable products into their environment, including many antibiotics. This fact has captivated scientists and clinicians for more than a century, and many of the details of the early history of antibiotics are familiar even to beginning students of microbiology and pharmacology. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.2.175.1
  • Difficulties establishing causality in biological systems are abundant— and they affect efforts to assess risks of importance in microbiology, such as likelihoods of infectious disease or development of antibiotic resistance. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.2.13.1
  • Population mobility is a main factor in globalization of public health threats and risks, specifically distribution of antimicrobial drug–resistant organisms. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Mobility,_Globalization,_and_Antimicrobial_Drug_Resistance
  • Noroviruses are a group of viruses (previously known as Norwalk-like viruses) that can affect the stomach and intestines. These viruses can cause people to have gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and the large intestines. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Noroviruses_on_Cruise_Ships
  • Pfiesteria, referred to by the popular media as “the cell from hell,” is a dinoflagellate—and, unlike most dinoflagellates, has a complex life cycle, consisting of about 20 different stages. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Pfiesteria
  • With cases documented in more than 170 countries, the global swine flu pandemic that erupted in spring 2009 remains a serious public health problem. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Swine_CAFOs_and_Novel_H1N1_Influenza
  • The twentieth century was marked by significant advances in understanding of microbes and infectious disease. Nonetheless, disease pandemics remain, food and waterborne illnesses are frequent, multidrug-resistant microbes are on the rise, and many needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Systems_Biology_Approach_to_Infectious_Disease_Research
  • Archeology and genetics combine to reveal what caused the Black Death. By Science in School, promoting inspiring science teaching by encouraging communication between teachers, scientists, and everyone else involved in European science education.

    http://www.scienceinschool.org/2014/issue28/black_death
  • Are migratory birds responsible for the spread of bird flu? Should we kill them all? By Science in School, promoting inspiring science teaching by encouraging communication between teachers, scientists, and everyone else involved in European science education.

    http://www.scienceinschool.org/2006/issue3/birdflu
  • Viruses will continue to be a big threat because human ecology has changed. Did you know? By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/holmes.html
  • Dengue fever is a serious disease, which is transmitted from a certain type of mosquito. By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/gubler.html
  • Despite the attention being paid to avian influenza and its potential to cause a pandemic among humans, the threat of avian diseases extends well beyond the influenza virus. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.2.238.1
  • In the United States, some ticks carry pathogens (an agent especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism) that can cause human or animal disease. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Tickborne_Diseases_of_the_U.S.
  • Although antibiotics remain the principal therapeutic approach to treating bacterial infections, because of increasing antibiotic resistance among pathogens, some governmental agencies such as the Canadian Institutes of Health Research are urging more efforts to seek alternatives to conventional antibiotics. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.2.341.1
  • Vaccines and therapies for infectious diseases have saved many lives. Control of many infectious diseases has been one of medicine’s greatest accomplishments. By The Science Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of science in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/180-vaccines-and-therapies
  • Infectious diseases continue to impose a huge global public health burden, accounting for more than one-quarter of all deaths annually and a similar fraction of morbidity. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.511.1
  • Many pathogens depend on the same virulence factors to cause disease in mammals such as mice and in nonmammalian hosts, thus sharing a fundamental set of molecular mechanisms across a widely divergent array of hosts. This approach to evaluating virulence factors by seeking them among divergent model hosts, referred to as the “multi-host pathogenesis system”, offers a number of benefits. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.2.600.1