X

Links for General Microbiology:

  • Those studying plant and animal biology—macrobiology—typically have a strong sense of the importance of species to communities. The late Ernst Mayr, a leading biologist of the 20th century, considered species “the basic unit of ecology…no ecosystem can be fully understood until it has been dissected into its component species and until the mutual interactions of these species are understood.” By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.269.1
  • Archaea are a domain of single-celled microorganisms. They have no cell nucleus or any other organelles inside their cells. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Archaea
  • Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. The microorganism substitutes arsenic for phosphorus in its cell components. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Arsenic_Based_Life
  • Bacteria are any of a very large group of single-celled microorganisms that display a wide range of metabolic types, geometric shapes and environmental habitats—and niches—of occurrence. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Bacteria
  • Bacteria range from the essential and useful, to the harmful. By The Science Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of science in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/588-bacteria-good-bad-and-ugly
  • Bacteria suffer from negative public relations. You probably associate bacteria with the three D’s: dirt, disease and death. And indeed, for centuries bacterial infections were the major cause of infant and child mortality worldwide. By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/biodiversity/wassenaar.html
  • Like other organisms, bacteria use double-stranded DNA as their genetic material. However, bacteria organise their DNA differently to more complex organisms. By the Biotechnology Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of biotechnology in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1900-bacterial-dna-the-role-of-plasmids
  • Although the carboxysome was for nearly 30 years the only microcompartment recognized within microbial cells, additional microcompartments, including some that are involved in metabolic processes such as degrading carbon sources, are known. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.2.25.1
  • Many bacteria reproduce by binary fission, with each cell doubling in size, replicating and segregating its genetic material, and dividing to form two equivalent daughter cells. However, some bacteria follow alternative reproductive strategies, and researchers are steadily gaining insights about some of these other processes. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.127.1
  • Biofilms are receiving attention as never before, reflecting our increasing awareness of their impact on health, the environment, industrial processes, and natural and manmade materials. Problems associated with biofilms cost the United States billions of dollars every year in energy losses, equipment damage, product contamination, and the management of infections. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.2.347.1
  • This isn’t some teacher’s fantasy biology class. I frequently hear students discussing their recent discoveries as I eavesdrop on classroom conversations during lab time. Since the implementation of sophisticated bioinformatic databases such as Biology Workbench and the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, I have witnessed an improvement in the level of biological questions and discussions in my classroom. By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/education/gabric.html
  • DNA

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a long chain organic molecule that contains the coding for all metabolic and reproductive processes of all living organisms, save for certain viruses. This helix shaped molecule consists of a spine that contains a sequence of nucleotides, whose order comprise the coding instruction for each specific lifeform. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/DNA
  • Proponents of the intelligent design (ID) explanation for how organisms developed claim that the bacterial flagellum (BF) is irreducibly complex. They argue that this structure is so complicated that it could not have emerged through random selection but had to be designed by an intelligent entity. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.2.335.1
  • Evolution is key to our understanding the deluge of data being generated by massive DNA sequencing efforts, microarray analyses of gene expression, high-throughput structural biochemistry, proteomics, and systems biology. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.365.1
  • The freshwater polyp Hydra, which belongs to an ancient animal phylum, still must defend itself against pathogens, much like other more complex organisms. Further, microorganisms colonize the epithelial layers of Hydra, much as they colonize other organisms. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.457.1
  • We live in a beautiful world – and that beauty and complexity extends far beyond what humans can see unaided. From plant and animal anatomy to cells and proteins and even down to the level of atoms, there are worlds within worlds of detail to be explored on the microscopic scale. By The Science Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of science in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/489-exploring-with-microscopes-introduction
  • Studying extremophiles on Earth may provide helpful metrics in our search for life elsewhere in the universe. Species that thrive in hypersaline environments are among the most fascinating models for studying mechanisms of survival away from our planet. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.120.1
  • Microbial taxonomists are cautious about adopting novel approaches for classifying organisms. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.2.283.1
  • Not so long ago, chronobiologists did not think that bacteria expressed circadian rhythms. These timing systems regulate myriad biological processes, including metabolism and gene expression, helping organisms adapt to environmental changes within the course of each solar day that involve shifts from light to dark as well as temperature and humidity cycles. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.411.1
  • Fungi are eukaryotic organisms and include yeasts, mould and mushrooms. Some fungi are multi-cellular, while others, such as yeasts, are unicellular. By The Science Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of science in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/590-fungi
  • The word fungus usually invokes images of mushrooms and toadstools. Although mushrooms are fungi, the forms which a fungus may take are varied. There are over 100,000 species of described fungi and probably over 200,000 undescribed. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Fungi
  • Using modern laboratory techniques, it is relatively easy to add pieces of foreign DNA to bacteria. By the Biotechnology Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of biotechnology in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/527-how-to-add-foreign-dna-to-bacteria
  • Microbial specimens need to be properly collected and transported to ensure the recovery of pathogens for subsequent analysis. Simply stated, a “bug's life” is of paramount importance, but without giving due consideration to its “life support” system, the chances of recovering it in a viable form are greatly diminished. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.180.1
  • Before progeny virus particles depart an infected cell, each virion needs to contain viral nucleic acid, accessory proteins, and enzymes within an outer shell before the capsid structure is completed to shield the sensitive cargo from the external environment. One mechanism that many viruses use to govern this process is morphogenic proteolysis. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.70.1
  • Since Antonie van Leeuwenhoek first saw mysterious ‘animalcules’ (bacteria) through his simple glass lens in the late 1600s, scientists have wanted to understand more about the strange and wonderful things they were discovering by using microscopes. By The Science Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of science in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/501-light-microscopes
  • Many people who watched the TV images coming back from the two Mars rovers this year were probably disappointed. By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/biodiversity/salyers2.html
  • Scientists, ever since the time of Aristotle, have been classifying creatures and looking at the relatedness among biological species or their “phylogeny”. By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/dacks.html
  • Starting in the 1980s, researchers began to realize the long-standing dream of studying individual molecules, particularly proteins. With a growing number of specialized techniques to use, researchers can now manipulate and visualize individual molecules and thus study mechanical unfolding and refolding of proteins or nucleic acids, the strength of receptor-ligand bonding interactions, and the nanomechanics of biological motors. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.330.1
  • Microbial forensics is a relatively new field that can help in solving cases. By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/genomics/salyersarticle.html
  • The term microbial community often comes up in the context of natural microbial assemblages (NMAs) being analyzed. Because the majority of microbes in such NMAs show no detectable activity or growth, researchers use molecular techniques to characterize microbes in these NMA—while assuming that nucleic acids recovered in bulk from such samples represent those microbial communities. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.2.591.1
  • Modern microbial ecology spans approximately 50 years. Although Martinus Beijerinck and Sergei Winogradsky both thought about ecological niches in the early part of the 20th century, they approached the challenge by trying to cultivate microbes under simulated natural conditions. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.175.1
  • We can’t see them. We can’t hear them or feel them, but they are with us. There are 10 trillion (10 x 1,000,000,000,000 or a million million) cells in the average body. By The Science Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of science in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/176-microorganisms-friend-or-foe
  • The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) launched the modern era of subsurface microbiology at its Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina in 1986. Those first efforts, involving three 200-m-deep wells along with procedures to monitor for drilling-related contaminants, uncovered abundant and diverse microbial communities in subsurface aquifers. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.499.1
  • The human genome proved surprisingly skimpy, encoding somewhere in the range of a mere 20,000 proteins, on the same order as the fruit fly genome—a psychologically humbling number. However, humans provide a scaffold upon which microbes build elaborate ecosystems and, by young adulthood, each of us carries many more microbial genes than our own. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.451.1
  • Nutrient and energy flows among organisms can be depicted as webs within which predatory interactions are extremely important. Predatory behaviors often dominate top-to-bottom relationships, while productivity tends to control bottom-to-top flows. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.2.67.1
  • Electron microscopes are very powerful tools for visualising biological samples. They enable scientists to view cells, tissues and small organisms in very great detail. By The Science Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of science in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/500-preparing-samples-for-the-electron-microscope
  • Proteins are the key working molecules and building blocks in all cells. They are produced in a similar two-step process in all organisms – DNA is first transcribed into RNA, then RNA is translated into protein. By the Biotechnology Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of biotechnology in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1901-proteins-what-they-are-and-how-they-re-made
  • Bacteria are single-celled organisms. They are prokaryotes and therefore do not have any cell organelles including a cell nucleus. By The Science Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of science in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/585-bacteria
  • Many types of free-living bacteria communicate with one another by chemical signals, thereby coordinating metabolic activities and developmental processes. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.63.1
  • Gram-negative bacteria produce lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin that causes septic shock and is a leading cause of death in critically ill patients. Because LPS is the predominant surface-exposed lipid in Gram-negative bacteria, it is one of the first compounds to interact with host cells. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.2.289.1
  • Synthetic biology (synbio) is an emerging field at the intersection of biology and engineering with the potential to no less than revolutionize the way we view and work with biotechnology today. By applying the toolbox of engineering disciplines to biology, an entirely new set of applications becomes possible. By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotechnology/schmidt.html
  • Many scientists believe that phages are the most abundant life form on Earth. Although phages outnumber their bacterial prey 10-fold, bacteria persist, sometimes relying on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) of DNA sequence as a defense mechanism. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.224.1
  • The human microbiome is composed of the microbes, as well as their genes and genomes, that live in and on the human body. By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/genomics/the_human_microbiome.html
  • Electron microscopes were developed in the 1930s to enable us to look more closely at objects than is possible with a light microscope. By The Science Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of science in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/502-types-of-electron-microscope
  • The National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) plans to send a new instrument to Mars to address the question of life there. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.2.170.1
  • Viruses and viral diseases have been at the center of science, agriculture, and medicine for millennia, and some of our greatest challenges and triumphs have involved virology. Smallpox is a prime example. This greatest killer of humankind changed the course of history during the European conquest of the New World and is also the only disease ever eradicated. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.317.1
  • A virus is a microscopic organism that can replicate only inside the cells of a host organism. Most viruses are so tiny they are only observable with at least a conventional optical microscope. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Virus
  • It doesn’t breathe, it doesn’t eat, it doesn’t excrete, and it doesn’t grow. By The Science Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of science in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/591-viruses
  • The surfaces of microbial cells are perhaps their most important structure because they are in immediate contact with the external environment. Microbial cell walls admit nutrients and release wastes, and yet they must resist internal turgor pressure and environmental insults and maintain cellular shape. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.279.1
  • For as long as we have known about them, scientists have thought that simple bacteria were the link to the earliest life forms on earth. By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/jeffares_poole.html