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Links for Environmental Microbiology:

  • Humans spend greater than 90 percent of their time indoors, but we're never alone there. Bacteria and viruses, scientists estimate, make up half of the world's biomass—some 10 nonillion (1 followed by 31 zeros) microorganisms—and we most often meet them within enclosed spaces. So, that's where the modern microbe hunter often looks first. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Advancing_indoor_microbial_sampling
  • An aeration basin is a holding and/or treatment pond provided with artificial aeration to promote the biochemical oxidation of wastewaters. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Aeration_basin_(Pollution)
  • Aguaje is a condition observed annually in the Pacific coastal waters off of Peru and Ecuador, in which the water is discolored red or yellow, with an accompanying significant loss of marine life. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Aguaje_(Ecology)
  • Algae comprise a diverse group of typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Algae
  • Beach closings are on the rise, but the public is not being given accurate information to help them get involved in solving the problem. By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/jensen_mclellan.html
  • We see the term ‘biodegradable’ on some products that we buy, such as washing powders and shampoo, but what does it actually mean? By The Science Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of science in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1537-biodegradability
  • The term “biofuel” may sound exotic and new to some members of the public, but it has been part of microbiologists' vocabulary for a long time. The colossal increases in the cost of fossil fuels and the volatility of the market have served as warnings to the entire world about these finite, nonrenewable resources. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.268.1
  • Bioremediation is one technique that may be useful to remove spilled oil under certain geographic and climatic conditions. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Bioremediation
  • Cold seeps are places on the seafloor where cold hydrocarbon-rich water escapes. They occur most often at tectonic plate boundaries. Carbonate deposits and communities of organisms are often found at these sites. By The Science Learning Hub, a national project designed to support the effective teaching of science in New Zealand schools.

    https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/475-cold-seep-communities
  • Despite major challenges, we believe that cellulosic sugars in agricultural waste are the best sustainable source for biofuels to meet world wide energy needs. One key challenge involves dealing with diverse cellulosic sugars, many with high levels of lignin. Other tough challenges include converting both 5-and 6-carbon sugars efficiently into ethanol and recycling carbon dioxide from fermentations back into useful biomass. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.269.1
  • Composting is the controlled biological decomposition and pasteurization of organic materials under aerobic conditions— it involves the action of mesophilic microorganisms followed by thermophilic microorganisms that thrive under increased (more than 50 °C) temperature conditions and if correctly managed, can destroy disease-causing organisms, even weed seeds. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Composting
  • Eutrophication is a syndrome of ecosystem responses to human activities that fertilize water bodies with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), often leading to changes in animal and plant populations and degradation of water and habitat quality. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Eutrophication
  • Sea ice in the Arctic region provides a habitat for organisms even in the cold of winter. By Actionbioscience.org, a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy.

    http://www.actionbioscience.org/biodiversity/deming.html
  • An extremophile is an organism adapted to unusual limits of one or more abiotic factors in the environment. Some of the extreme conditions are temperature, pH, high salinity, high levels of radiation and high pressure. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Extremophile
  • Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesses globally. Ingestion of water contaminated with feces is responsible for a variety of diseases important to humans via what is known as the fecal-oral route of transmission. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Fecal_pollution_of_water
  • Living with each of us—on our skin, in our mucosa, and in our gastrointestinal (GI) tract—are microorganisms whose numbers dwarf the number of our own cells and genes. Although some of these microbes are pathogens, most are harmless or even beneficial. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Gut_reaction:_environmental_effects_on_the_human_microbiota
  • Viruses help carbon sink deep down in the oceans. By Science in School, promoting inspiring science teaching by encouraging communication between teachers, scientists, and everyone else involved in European science education.

    http://www.scienceinschool.org/content/infecting-climate-change
  • Marine microbes is a term that encompasses all microscopic organisms generally found in saltwater. Most micro-organisms are acellular and fall into the major categories of viruses, prokaryotes (bacteria), and protists, groups which differ considerably in biological characteristics. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Marine_microbes_(Microbial_Ecology)
  • The material presented here tends to resume the literature dealing mainly with the structural description of the microbial loop and discusses some functional aspect in action within the microbial food webs. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Marine_microbial_loop
  • Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient the non-availability of which in suitable form or concentration often limits biological production both in the terrestrial and marine environments. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Marine_nitrogen_cycle
  • Viruses are parasites of living cells which invade cells and then use their biological machinery to propagate. Most viruses in the ocean consist of nucleic acids surrounded by a protein coat (called a capsid). By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Marine_viruses
  • At any moment, an estimated 10^30 bacterial and archaeal genes are mediating essential ecological processes throughout the world. The new field of metatranscriptomics, using an approach that sequences microbial genes expressed within intact natural communities, allows us to understand microbial gene expression patterns. It is now feasible to deeply sequence the assortment of microbial community transcripts from a particular time and place, whether from bacteria, archaea, or small eukaryotes in the ocean, the soil, or the human gut. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.329.1
  • If scientists have their way, “green” beer won't be limited to St. Patrick's Day celebrations anymore. Breweries are taking their wastewater, which is rich in organic material, and turning it into electricity with bacteria in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs can generate valuable commodities from a variety of organic wastes that are abundant and essentially free—bacteria have generated electricity from industrial wastewaters, sewage, and even sediment. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.281.1
  • By some estimates, a third of Earth's organisms live in our planet's rocks and sediments, yet their lives are almost a complete mystery. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Microbial_life_in_undersea_volcanoes
  • A Study in Balance: How Microbiomes Are Changing the Shape of Environmental Health. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Microbiomes_and_Environmental_Health
  • The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) launched the modern era of subsurface microbiology at its Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina in 1986. Those first efforts, involving three 200-m-deep wells along with procedures to monitor for drilling-related contaminants, uncovered abundant and diverse microbial communities in subsurface aquifers. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.499.1
  • Industrially produced nitrogen enter the biogeochemical cycle each year. Nitrification, denitrification, and nitrogen fixation are the major bacterially mediated processes moving inorganic nitrogen through this cycle. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.229.1
  • Nitrogen fertilization — if one includes CO2 released during the manufacture, distribution, and application of the fertilizer and N2O released during microbial transformation of fertilizer in soils (denitrification)—is responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Nitrogen_Management_in_Agriculture
  • A "red tide" is a common term used for a harmful algal bloom. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Red_tide_(Botany)
  • Sewage treatment is the reduction of contamination in a water pollution effluent, usually considered for the class of liquid wastes comprised by municipal sewage and sometimes admixed by urban stormwater runoff. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Sewage_treatment
  • The vast majority of carbon on Earth is located underground in inorganic forms such as the carbonates in sedimentary rock, mostly calcite, and in organic forms such as deposits of coal, oil, and natural gas and accumulations of soil organic matter. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Soil_Microorganisms_and_Biogeochemistry
  • About 200 miles from Yellowstone National Park, is a site not as scenic, yet proving nearly as exotic in terms of its rich diversity of extremophiles. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.1.506.1
  • A team of Agricultural Research Service scientists at the J. Phil Campbell Sr. Natural Resource Conservation Center in Watkinsville, Georgia, has come up with a way to detect both Salmonella and pathogenic (disease-causing) E. coli in waterways at lower levels than any previous method could. Similar methods have been developed to detect pathogenic E. coli in meat products, but the team’s approach represents a first for waterways. By The Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE), an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

    http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Tracking_Salmonella_and_E._coli_in_Waterways
  • Fast and efficient transportation is an important part of our lives. Thus, liquid fuels with high energy density along with small internal combustion engines are providing a convenient, affordable transportation solution. However, soaring fuel prices, ebbing fuel reserves, accumulating greenhouse gases, and national security needs lead us to seek alternative fuels. By Microbe Magazine, the monthly news magazine of the American Society for Microbiology.

    http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.4.560.1